The Japanese Bantam

Chabo - True bantam

Breeding, characteristics and exhibition of the Japanese Bantam.

To get down to the fine points of exhibition quality, we will take an imaginary flock of birds and go to work. The first things we will check are legs, back and tail carriage. To be worthy of showing, a Japanese Bantam must have short legs, a short back and erect tail carriage, with main tail feathers well spread, much like a fan.  

Tails falling to the side and carried forward past the side of the head often are a telltale sign of a long back, or too little back and saddle feather to serve as a cushion, which assists in keeping the tail erect. Proper tail carriage accompanied by a short back will form a "U" between tail and hackle, This "U" shape is very distinct in a good female, but often is concealed in the best males by the flowing of hackle feathers over the back and onto the upper saddle feathers.  

After satisfying ourselves on legs, back and tail carriage, we will look among our birds for deep, well-rounded breasts, carried low and prominent enough to extend slightly beyond the tip of the beak. We do not want our birds to tilt forward, as sometimes seen in Cochin Bantams, nor do we want them to rear-up or stand high as seen in Modern Game Bantams. The body should be horizontal as possible, both top and bottom lines, The body, overall, also should be short and blocky with good width from shoulders to base of tail.  

It we like what we have seen up to this point, we turn now to the head and neck. We want a relatively large comb that follows a downward line over the back of the head, not shooting out into space like a Leghorn Bantam. To accommodate such a comb we must have a broad skull to provide room for an adequate base for the comb, and we want this width to drop down through the face, deep enough so the head is round in appearance, not thin, narrow and snake-like.  

The wattles and ear lobes should be well rounded and proportionate in size to the comb. We want the eyes to be large, bright and round in shape. The beak should be fairly wide, not too long, and well rounded, giving the appearance of strength. Now, this good head should be set on a short, slightly arched neck with full, flowing hackle feathers. The short neck does much to emphasize the appearance of good length of feather in the main tail and the long, sword-like sickle feathers on the male. A long neck makes the tail feathers appear shorter than they may actually be, while the short neck does just the opposite.

pair japanese

Do we still have a few birds left after examining them for the above qualities? If so, good. Now, last but not least, let's take a look at their wing carriage. This has much to do with the general appearance of looking 10'."' close to the ground. The wings should be carried low with the tips just touching the ground at about the base of the fluff. They should not be so long that they extend much beyond the fluff or, at most, the back main tail feathers. This low wing carriage is important. I have seen long-legged Japanese with proper wing carriage that looked lower to the ground in a show pen than their counterparts that had short legs but tucked their wings up high.  

We have so many varieties it would be impossible to discuss here the fine points of color. I would suggest, however, if you have a color found in other breeds, study anything and everything you can find about the breeding of your particular color. Breeding the Mottled or Birchen pattern, for example, is much the same in all breeds. The major difference is in type, and in Japanese Bantams type is about 75 per cent of the bird, give or take a few points. But, even so, without fairly good color, we don't have a variety. Type does make the breed, but it is still color that makes the variety and adds to its beauty.

good bantam head

For showing, shape is very important. Only 10 points (out of 100) are available in the British Poultry Standard for colour.

Japanese Bantams carry the recessive creeper gene Cp which gives the breed short legs. If two short legged birds are bred together, according to Mendals law, 25% of the offspring will be pure for Cp, a lethal gene combination which causes a disability making them unable to hatch. 50% of the offspring will carry one Cp gene and are therefore short legged as per the breed standard and the final 25% will not carry the gene and be long legged. Breeding a short legged with a long legged will produce 50% short legged, 50% long legged without any lethal embryos.  

When you set your first setting of eggs for the year, candle them after 7 days to see what is fertile. If fertility is low, you may want to shuffle birds around or trim the vent feathers.  

The first step to efficient and successful mating is putting your birds together in such a way that you can trace the results. You trace the results in a three-step program. First you confine the parents in such a way that you can determine which eggs go to which parents. Secondly you collect and mark the eggs from each set of parents; stud, trio, or pen. Then set the eggs in your incubator. On the eighteenth day group the marked eggs in different containers according to markings. I mark my eggs by the name of the male.  

Now different people have different approaches to setting up their breeding pens. Some put two females in each pen and rotate three males from pen to pen, raise a lot of birds, and cull heavily. You get a wide variety of offspring; every type and every color. This may work well once you have concentrated your gene pool. I have given up the vast numbers method of raising offspring and now prefer an accurate targetted  and altogether more predictable approach. It saves time, money frustration and resources.  

 I then cull the long legged chicks and leg band the good ones according to their parents Proof-test your matings by following a breeding plan. Believe me, it will pay off in the long run. By this method I have found a mating that has clicked better than any I have ever had.   A bantam cock is like a terrier dog in that neither of them seems daunted by anything that life puts in their path.

Bantam males have no fear, this is one of mine trying to mount  a buff sussex hen!
The breed standard for japanese bantams.

japanese male
 
So type, (shape) is very important. Its what makes our Japanese Bantams, Japanese.
 
Shape of Male
 
COMB: Single-very large in comparison to size of bird, set firmly and evenly on head, straight and upright, evenly serrated with five regular and distinct points, the middle points the longest and the same length as the width of the blade, front not to extend beyond point half way between nostrils and point of beak, but extending well over back of head, with tendency to follow shape of neck.
 
BEAK: Very strong, stout, well curved.
FACE: Smooth, full over eyes, fine in texture, free from wrinkles or folds.
EYES: large, round, prominent.
WATTLES: large, well rounded at lower edges, free from wrinkles or folds.
EAR LOBES: large, elongated oval, smooth, free from wrinkles or folds.
HEAD: Broad, large in comparison to size of bird.
NECK: Fairly short, full, tapering from shoulders to head, on the order of what is termed "bull-necked."
HACKLE: Abundant, falling gracefully and plentifully over: shoulders and well down back, nearly meeting in front of neck.
BACK: Very short, broad, in profile, shaped like a very narrow U with neck and tail forming the vertical sides .
SADDLE: Abundant, filling the space between stern and wing ends, extending from middle of back to tail coverts.
TAIL: Very large and upright, carried in so erect a position as to almost contact the back of the head, slightly forward of perpendicular.  Main Tail- feathers wide, well spread in a neatly overlapping manner, rising above the head by one half of their length. Sickles-very erect, long, broad sword-shaped, only slightly curved in a convex manner. Lesser sickles-fairly upright, convexly curved, sword-shaped. Coverts-abundant, conventionally curved, broadly sword-shaped.
WINGS: large, long, closely folded, carried rather low and well back from front of breast, tips trailing well in rear of stern, lower edges not quite touching the ground. Shoulders & Fronts-prominent, partially concealed by hackle. Bows-well rounded. Coverts-feathers broad, forming two distinct bars across wings. Primaries-moderate width, rather long, completely hidden by secondaries. Secondaries-broad, tapering convexly to a point beyond stern.
BREAST: Well-developed, broad, full, carried prominently forward beyond a vertical line drawn down from tip of beak, well rounded.
BODY & STERN: Body-short, very deep, compact. Stern-fluff, short abundant.
LEGS & TOES: Legs-shortest legs of any breed of bantams except Creepers; widely set, thick, parallel to each other without bowing or knock knees, hardly visible. Lower Thighs-short, stout at top and tapering abruptly to hocks. Shanks-extremely short, smooth, round, evenly scaled. Spurs-short, hard, fine. Toes-four, straight, well and evenly spread, evenly scaled.
APPEARANCE: Small, low built, broad and cobby, full feathered upright tail.
 
Shape of Female
 
COMB: Single-large in comparison to size of bird, set firmly and evenly on head, straight and upright, evenly serrated with five regular and distinct points, the middle point the same in length as the width of the blade, moderately arched.
BEAK: Strong, stout, well curved.
FACE: Smooth, full over eyes, fine in texture, free from wrinkles or folds.
EYES: Large, round, conspicuous.
WATTLES: Medium size, round, fine in texture, free from wrinkles or folds.
HEAD: Broad, large in comparison to size of bird.
NECK: Fairly short, full, tapering gracefully from shoulders to head.
HACKLE: Abundant, flowing down over back and cape.
BACK: Very short, broad; in profile, shaped like a very narrow U with neck and tail forming the vertical sides.
CUSHION: Short, feathers broad and plentiful.
TAIL: Very large and upright, carried in an upright position so as to almost contact the back of the head, slightly forward of perpendicular. Main Tail-feathers wide, well spread in an neatly overlapping manner, rising above the head by one half of their length. Coverts-abundant, becoming very broad flowing well up tail.
WINGS: large, long, closely folded, carried rather low and well back from front of breast, tips trailing well in rear of stern, lower edges not quite touching the ground. Shoulders & Fronts-prominent, slightly concealed by hackle. Bows-well rounded. Coverts-feathers broad, forming two distinct bars across wings. Primaries-moderate width, rather long, completely concealed by secondaries. Secondaries-broad, tapering convexly to a point welt beyond stern.
BREAST: Well developed, full, carried prominently forward beyond a vertical line drawn down from point of beak, broad and well rounded.
BODY & STERN: Body-short, very deep, compact. Stern-fluff, short, abundant.
LEGS & TOES: Legs-shortest legs of any breed of bantams, except Creepers, widely set, parallel to each other without bowing or knock knees, hardly visible. Lower thighs-short, stout at top and tapering to hocks. Shanks-extremely short, smooth, round, evenly scaled. Toes-four, straight, well and evenly spread, evenly scaled.
APPEARANCE: Small, broad, compact, with large upright tail.
DEFECTS - Comb with thumb mark, irregularly serrated or lopped-Small and/ or narrow head-Unduly long, straight or slim neck-Long and/or narrow back-Narrow or shallow breast-Male sickles curved in a concaved manner (toward head)-Any semblance of stiltiness.
There are many colour varieties of Japanese bantam, with standardised colours including birchen grey, black, black mottled, black-tailed buff, black-tailed white, blue, blue mottled, blue-red, brown-red, buff Columbian, cuckoo, dark grey, golden duckwing, gray, lavender, Miller's gray, partridge, red, red mottled, silver-grey, tri-coloured, wheaten and white.There are also frizzle-feathered and Silkie-feathered variations. Not all are in every countries standards.
the back is worth 12 points and the breast is worth 10 points. This is out of a total of 100 points. The breast and the back of the Japanese can make or break the bird. If the breast is held high or too narrow the bird should be culled. If the back is anything but a nice narrow U, it should go into the stew pot.
You can cull too early, Japanese females don't type up as fast as males do. Patience is your ally.
 
 
COLOR OF MALE AND FEMALE BY VARIETY
 
BARRED JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Dusky Yellow. EYES: Reddish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Dusky yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to barred color description.
 
BARRED PLUMAGE - Colour of Male and Female
 
PLUMAGE: Ground color pearly white, each feather barred with uniform, narrow, equidistant, clear cut dark bars that stop short of absolute jet black. The light and dark bars to be of about equal width, and this uniform barring width to extend throughout the entire length of each feather; each feather ending in a narrow dark tip. A sharp line of demarcation should be apparent between the light and dark bars. They should not run together.
 
UNDERCOLOR: Barred throughout. The barred color plumage is composed of two color bars, the white and the dark. Experienced breeders look first at the white bars and then the dark bars. Parallel barring is desired, not V -shaped barring.
The white bars should be a pearly white and the same width throughout the entire length of the feather. The dark bars should be almost jet black, of the same width throughout the entire feather and give the impression of embossed lettering on white stationery.
 
More attention should be given to the brightness and sharpness of the pearly white bar and the almost jet black bar than whether the bird appears lighter or darker than your individual preference. Do not be disturbed over the fact that males are lighter in color than the females.
Strive for one uniform color over the entire body of the bird. Lighter hackles and bronzed wingbows are especially objectionable in males. The breeder should strive constantly for the maximum number of bars on each feather.
 
Tone of Color Tone of color depends upon these factors:
1. Width of light and dark bars on each feather.
2. Intensity of whiteness in the white bar, and intensity of black in the dark bar. When viewed from a distance too great to distinguish the individual bars, these factors give the tone of color or overall appearance. Tone of color is blue, or modified light blue, medium blue or dark blue. Tone of color in the pearly white bar is most affected by ashyness, gray, smokiness, bronzing, creaminess, dullness, rustiness or brassiness. Tone of color in the almost jet black bar is most affected by brownish tinge, beetle green, purple or metallic sheen. No two specimens are exactly alike in tone of color.
 
DISQUALIFICATIONS - Red or yellow in any section of the plumage- Two or more solid black or solid white feathers in primaries, or two or more in secondaries, or two or more in main tail.
 
DEFECTS - Irregular barring-Metallic, brassiness or foreign color on surface.
 
BLACK PLUMAGE
COMB, FACE WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Deep red. BEAK: Yellow. EYES: Dark brown. SHANKS & TOES: Swarthy yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to black color description.
 
Color of Male and Female PLUMAGE: The quill and surface of every feather in all sections of the plumage, over the entire body, pure black. The head, hackle, back, saddle, sickles and wing bows of the male should have a rich beetle green sheen, The female should also show some brilliance of feather in the head, hackle, back, cushion and wing bows. UNDERCOLOR: Black Legged Varieties-dull black. Yellow Legged Varieties-dull slate .
 
DISQUALIFICATIONS - More than one appearance of more than one half inch of positive white in any section of the plumage-Any appearance of any other color excepting varying shades of gray in the under color in any section of the plumage.
 
DEFECTS Purple sheen or purple barring of plumage .
BLACK BREASTED RED JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Yellow. EYES: Red- dish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Swarthy yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to black breasted red color description.
 
BLACK BREASTED RED PLUMAGE - Color of Male
HEAD: Brilliant, deep orange red.
NECK: Hackle-brilliant, orange red, free from dark striping and lighter shading at lower extremities of hackle feathers. Front of Neck-black. BACK: Brilliant, deep red.
SADDLE: Brilliant, orange red, free from dark striping and lighter shading at lower extremities of saddle feathers.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, with greenish sheen, shafts black. Sickles, Lesser Sickles & Coverts: brilliant, greenish black, shafts black.
 
WINGS: Shoulders & Fronts-black. Bows-brilliant, deep red. Coverts-bluish black, forming distinct bar across wings. Primaries-black, lower edge of lower web, edged with bay, shafts black. Secondaries-black exposed portion of outer web forming wing bay, bay.
BREAST: Lustrous black.
BODY & STERN: Black. LOWER THIGHS: Black.
UNDERCOLOR: Slate in all sections.
 
Color of Female
HEAD: Golden red.
NECK: Hackle-golden orange, striped with black. Front of Neck: rich salmon.
BACK & CUSHION: Surface color, dull black, entire web evenly and finely stippled with golden brown, the golden brown predominating, free from shafting, unexposed portion of feather dull black, shading to slate at fluff.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, two top feathers evenly stippled with golden brown, shafts black. Coverts-same as back.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows and Coverts-same as back.
Primaries-dull black, lower edge of lower web finely stippled with golden brown, shafts black.
Secondaries-dull black, exposed portion of outer web forming wing bay, finely stippled with golden brown.
BREAST: Salmon, shading lighter at body and blending into body color.
BODY & STERN: Ashy gray, except where surface color blends into wings and back. LOWER THIGHS: Slaty brown.
UNDERCOLOR: Slate in all sections.
DISQUALIFICATION White plumage in any section of the female.
DEFECTS Black or dark striping in hackle or saddle of male-Excessive white fluff at base of male tail-Frosty or mooney lacing in breast feather of male or female-Lemon, light orange or golden extremities in hackle or saddle of male-Light salmon in breast of female-Penciling and/ or vermiculation in female back, body, shoulders, fronts, bows and covert feathers. These feathers should be evenly and finely stippled over their entire surface, right out to the end of the feather-Red lacing or ticking in breast, sickles, body or thighs of male-Red or light shafting in sickles, main tail and primaries of male-Shafting other than black in main tail and primaries of female-Sooty appearance in breast of female-White in ear lobes in varieties where red is required.
 
BLACK TAILED BUFF JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Yellow. EYES: Red- dish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to black tailed buff color description.
 
BLACK TAILED BUFF PLUMAGE - Color of Male
HEAD: Buff.
NECK: Hackle-buff, with some luster, free from dark striping. Front of Neck-buff.
SADDLE: Buff, with some luster. BACK: Buff, with some luster.
TAIL: Main Tail-black. Sickles & Coverts-lustrous black, evenly laced with buff.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows and Coverts-buff, with some luster. Primaries-black, fringed with buff. Secondaries-black upper web, heavily fringed with buff; buff lower web, exposed portion forming wing bay, entirely buff when folded.
BREAST: Buff.
BODY, STERN AND LOWER THIGHS: Buff.
UNDERCOLOR: Pale slaty buff in all sections,
 
Color of Female
HEAD: Buff
NECK: Hackle-buff with some luster. Front of Neck-buff.
BACK & CUSHION: Buff.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, two top feathers laced with buff. Coverts-black, buff lacing.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows and Coverts-buff. Primaries-black, fringed with buff. Secondaries-black upper web, heavily fringed with buff; buff lower web, exposed portion forming wing bay, entirely buff when folded.
BREAST, BODY, STERN AND LOWER THIGHS: Buff.
UNDERCOLOR: Pale slaty buff in all sections
DISQUALIFICATIONS: White or red feathers in any section of plumage.
DEFECTS: Mealiness in surface and under color-White in undercolor-White or pale shafting in buff section of plumage- Various shades of red in plumage- Buff shafting and / or lacing in male sickles and tail coverts-Refer to buff plumage color description for buff sections of plumage .
 
BLACK TAILED RED JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright Red. BEAK: Reddish horn. EYES: Reddish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Yellow, streaked with reddish horn. PLUMAGE: Refer to black tailed red color description.
 
BLACK TAILED RED PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
HEAD: Glossy, intense deep red.
NECK: Hackle-glossy, intense deep red. Front of Neck-intense, deep red.
BACK & SADDLE: Glossy, intense deep red.
TAIL: Main Tail-black. Sickles & Lesser Sickles-glossy, greenish black. Coverts-glossy greenish black, becoming intense deep red as saddle is neared.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows and Coverts-intense, deep red. Primaries-upper webs, intense, deep red; lower web, black fringed with intense deep red. Primary Coverts-black, edged with red. Secondaries-upper web, black, fringed with intense deep red, the deep red growing wider in shorter secondaries to form wing bay of glossy, intense, deep red when wing is folded; lower web, intense: deep red.
BREAST: Glossy, intense, deep red.
BODY & STERN: Body-glossy, intense, deep red. Stern-intense, deep red.
LOWER THIGHS: Intense, deep red.
UNDERCOLOR: Deep red in all sections.
 
Color of Female
 
HEAD: Glossy, intense, deep red.
NECK: Hackle-glossy, intense, deep red, with slight ticking of black confined to lower neck feathers. Front of Neck-intense, deep red.
BACK & CUSHION: Glossy, intense deep red.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, two top feathers may be edged with deep red.Coverts-glossy, intense, deep red.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows, and Coverts-glossy, intense, deep red. Primaries-upper webs, intense, deep red; lower web, black fringed with intense, deep red. Primary coverts-black, edged with red. Secondaries-upper web black, fringed with intense, deep red, the deep red growing wider in shorter secondaries to form wing bay of glossy, intense, deep red when wing is folded; lower web, intense, deep red.
BREAST, BODY, STERN AND LOWER THIGHS: Intense deep red.
UNDERCOLOR: Deep red in all sections.
DISQUALIFICATION: One or more white feathers in any section of plumage.
DEFECTS: Brassiness, bronzing, mealiness or shafting in any section of the plumage-Lacing or frosting in surface color -White or slate in undercolor -The general surface color of the male plumage should be an intense, glossy, deep red, except where black is specified; the female with not as brilliant a luster as the male-There should be one uniform sur- face color, with no variation in tone of color, over the entire body.
 
BLACK TAILED RED JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright Red. BEAK: Reddish horn. EYES: Reddish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Yellow, streaked with reddish horn. PLUMAGE: Refer to black tailed red color description.
 
BLACK TAILED WHITE PLUMAGE -  Color of Male
 
HEAD: Silvery white.
NECK: Hackle-silvery white. Front of Neck-white.
BACK: White with some luster.
SADDLE: White.
TAIL: Main Tail-black.Sickles, Lesser Sickles & Coverts-black, evenly laced with white.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows and Coverts-silvery white. Primaries-black, fringed with white. Secondaries-black upper web, heavily fringed with white; white lower web, exposed portion of outer webs forming wing bay, entirely white.
BREAST, BODY, STERN AND LOWER THIGHS: White
UNDERCOLOR: Pale slate in all sections.
 
Color of Female
HEAD, NECK, BACK & CUSHION: White.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, two top feathers laced with white.Coverts-black, evenly laced with white.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows and Coverts-white. Primaries-black, fringed with white. Secondaries-black upper web, heavily fringed with white; white lower web, exposed portion of outer webs forming wing bay, entirely white.
BREAST, BODY, STERN AND LOWER THIGHS: White.
UNDERCOLOR: Pale slate in all sections.
DEFECTS: Creamy or brassy surface in any section of plumage-White undercolor- Striping in male hackle and saddle feathers- Broken lacing in male sickles and coverts or female tail coverts-striping in female hackle feathers.
 
BLUE JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Deep red BEAK: Dusky yellow. EYES: Reddish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Dusky yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to blue color description.
 
BLUE PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
HEAD: Lustrous bluish black.
NECK: Hackle-a uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with lustrous bluish black. Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK: A uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with lustrous bluish black.
SADDLE: Same as hackle.
TAIL: Main Tail-a uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with bluish black. Sickles, Lesser Sickles and Coverts-same as main tail.
WINGS: Shoulders, fronts and Bows-a uniform shade of slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with lustrous bluish black. Coverts-a uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with bluish black. Primaries-a uniform shade of slaty blue. Secondaries-a uniform shade of plain slaty blue, outer webs clearly and sharply laced with bluish black, a lustrous bluish black shafting.
BREAST, BODY, STERN & LOWER THIGHS: A uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with bluish black.
UNDERCOLOR: Uniform slaty blue in all sections.
 
Color of Female
HEAD: Slaty blue .
NECK: Hackle-a uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with lustrous bluish black. Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK, CUSHION, TAIL & TAIL COVERTS: A uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with bluish black.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts, Bows and Coverts-a uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with bluish black.Primaries-a uniform shade of slaty blue. Secondaries-a uniform shade of plain slaty blue, outer webs clearly and sharply laced with bluish black, lustrous bluish black shafting.
BREAST, BODY, STERN & LOWER THIGHS: A uniform shade of plain slaty blue clearly and sharply laced with bluish black.
UNDERCOLOR: Uniform slaty blue in all sections.
Judging Instructions: Lacing in the male hackle, back, wing bows and saddle should be lustrous without a green sheen. The overall dark appearance in these sections of the male, as well as the hackle of the female, is the result of overlapping feathers. The ground color of the male should match the female .
DISQUALIFICATIONS: Red, yellow, orange or positive white in any section of the plumage.
DEFECTS: Surface of feathers not laced with darker shade-Black or white feathers in various sections of plumage.
 
BROWN RED JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Dark red. BEAK: Swarthy yellow. EYES: Dark brown. SHANKS & TOES: Swarthy yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to brown red color description.
 
BROWN RED PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
HEAD: Lustrous deep orange .
NECK: Hackle-lustrous deep orange, with a narrow dark stripe through the middle of each feather, terminating in a point near its lower extremity. Front of Neck-black, with very narrow lacing of deep orange .
BACK: Lustrous deep orange.
SADDLE: Same as hackle.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, with slight luster. Sickles & Coverts-lustrous beetle green black.
WINGS: Shoulders & fronts-black. Bows-lustrous deep orange, to match back. Coverts-lustrous black.  Primaries-black. Secondaries-black, exposed portion forming wing bay, with slight luster .
BREAST: Upper Breast-black with very narrow lacing of deep orange. Lower Breast-black.
BODY, STERN AND LOWER THIGHS: Black.
UNDERCOLOR: Dull black in all sections .
 
Color of Female
 
HEAD: Deep orange.
NECK: Hackle-deep orange, with a narrow, dark stripe through the middle of each feather, terminating in a point near its lower extremity. Front of Neck-black, with very narrow lacing of deep orange.
BACK, CUSHION, TAIL and WINGS: Black.
BREAST: Upper Breast-black, with very narrow lacing of deep orange. Lower Breast-black.
BODY, STERN and LOWER THIGHS: Black.
UNDERCOLOR: Dull black in all sections.
DISQUALIFICATIONS: More than one appearance of more than one half inch of positive white in any section of the plumage.
DEFECTS: Absence of black striping in hackle of either sex-Absence of lacing on breast of either sex-Black cap on head-Excessive lacing on lower breast of either sex-Hackle feathers ending in a black tip-Lacing extending down thighs-Lacing on back of both male and female-Lacing too heavy on breast-Purple sheen or purple barring in any section of plumage-Shafting in body and breast feathers.
 
 
BUFF JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Yellow. EYES: Red- dish bay. SHANKS & TOES: yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to buff color description.
 
BUFF PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
PLUMAGE: Entire surface, an even shade of intense, golden buff, free from shaftiness, mealiness, cloudiness or mottled appearance. Head, neck, Hackle, Back, Saddle, Sickles and Wing Bow-richly glossed, intense, golden buff.
UNDERCOLOR: Similar to basic surface color, free from mealiness or any foreign color. Color of Female
PLUMAGE: Entire surface, an even shade of intense, golden buff, free from shaftiness, mealiness, cloudiness or mottled appearance. Head, Neck and Hackle-slightly glossed intense golden buff.
UNDERCOLOR: Similar to basic surface color, free from mealiness or any foreign color.
DISQUALIFICATIONS: Positive solid white or red feathers in any section of plumage.
DEFECTS: Any deviation other than an orange cast to be considered a variation-Dark brown to black peppering in tail and wings-Gray feathers in various sections of the plumage-Mealiness in surface color and under color-Reddish lemon and/ or light yellow surface color-White in under color-White or pale feather shafts, from base to well up feather, especially in main tail, wing primaries and secondaries.
 
 
GRAY JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Deep red. BEAK: Swarthy yellow. EYES: Dark brown. SHANKS & TOES: Swarthy yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to gray color description.
 
GRAY PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
HEAD: White with silver luster.
NECK: Hackle-silvery white with slender black stripe through middle of each feather terminating in a point short of its lower extremity, to match saddle . Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK: White, with silver luster .
SADDLE: Silvery white with slender back stripe through middle of each feather,  terminating in a point short of its lower extremity, to match hackle .
TAIL: Main Tail-black. Sickles & Lesser Sickles-black, with brilliant greenish sheen. Coverts-brilliant greenish black.
WINGS: Shoulders & Fronts-black. Bows-white with silver luster. Coverts-brilliant black, forming a distinct bar across wing . Primaries-black. Secondaries- black, exposed portion of outer web forming wing bay, brilliant black.
BREAST: Lustrous black, each feather evenly laced with silvery white.
BODY, STERN & LOWER THIGHS: Black.
UNDERCOLOR: Dull slaty black.
 
Color of Female
 
HEAD: White.
NECK: Hackle-black with narrow white lacing. Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK & CUSHION: Black.
TAIL: Main Tail-black. Coverts-black with some luster.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts & Bows-black. Coverts-black with some luster.  Primaries-dull black. Secondaries-black, exposed portion of outer web forming wing bay, black with some luster.
BREAST: Black, each feather evenly laced with white.
BODY, STERN & LOWER THIGHS: Black.
UNDERCOLOR: Dull slaty black.
 
 
MOTTLED JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Swarthy yellow, yellow preferred. EYES: Dark brown. SHANKS & TOES: Swarthy yellow, yellow preferred. PLUMAGE: Refer to mottled color description
 
MOTTLED PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
HEAD: Brilliant greenish black, one feather in three ending in a small V-shaped white tip..
NECK: Hackle-brilliant greenish black, one feather in two ending in a small V-shaped white tip. Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK: Brilliant greenish black, one feather in four ending in a V-shaped white tip.
SADDLE: Same as hackle.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, each feather ending in a V -shaped white tip. Sickles, Lesser Sickles and Coverts-each feather ending in a V-shaped white tip.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts and Bows-brilliant greenish black, one feather in three ending in a V-shaped white tip. Coverts-brilliant greenish black, each feather ending in a V -shaped white tip, the whole forming two distinct bars across wing. Primaries-black, ending with white tips. Secondaries-lustrous black, ending with white tips.
BREAST: Brilliant greenish black, one feather in two ending in a V-shaped white tip.
BODY & STERN: Body-same as breast. Stern-f1uff, black tinged with white.
LOWER THIGHS: Same as breast.
UNDERCOLOR: Slaty black.
 
Color of Female
 
HEAD: Black, one feather in three ending in a V-shaped white tip.
NECK: Hackle-black, one feather in two ending in a small V-shaped white tip. Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK & CUSHION: Black, one feather in two ending in a V-shaped white tip.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, each feather ending in a V -shaped white tip.Coverts-black, one feather in three ending in a V-shaped white tip.
WINGS: Shoulders, Fronts & Bows-same as back. Coverts-black, one feather in three ending in a V-shaped white tip, forming an irregular pair of bars across wing . Primaries & Secondaries-black, ending with white tips.
BREAST: Black, one feather in two ending in a V-shaped white tip.
BODY & STERN: Body-same as breast. Stern-f1uff black, tinged with white.
LOWER THIGHS: Same as breast.
UNDERCOLOR: Slaty black.
Judging Instructions: Black plumage should predominate over all sections of the plumage. The ideal white tip should be from one quarter to three eighths of an inch long on the back, body and thighs. This white should be pure within itself and free from traces of gray or black, the whiter and sharper the better. An even sized tip in all sections of the plumage is the ideal.
EFECTS: Purple barring in black sections of the plumage-Large white mottling, giving bird an overall too white appearance-Lack of mottling on back, breast and lower body-Solid white feathers in plumage.
 
 
SELF BLUE JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Dusky yellow. EYES: Reddish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Dusky yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to self blue color description.
 
SELF BLUE PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
PLUMAGE: Entire surface, an even shade of light slaty blue, free from mealiness, cloudiness or mottled appearance. Head, Neck, Hackle, Back, Saddle, Sickles and Wing Bows-richly glossed.
UNDERCOLOR: Similar to basic surface color, free from mealiness or any foreign color.
 
Color of Female
PLUMAGE: Entire surface, an even shade of light slaty blue, free from mealiness, cloudiness or mottled appearance. Head, Neck and Hackle-slightly glossed.
UNDERCOLOR: Similar to basic surface color, free from mealiness or any foreign color.
DISQUALIFICATIONS: Red, yellow, orange or positive white in any section of the plumage.
DEFECTS: Surface of feather laced, in any section of the body-Dark blue feathers in various sections- Varying shades of blue throughout the plumage .
 
SILVER DUCKWING JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Swarthy yellow. EYES: Dark reddish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Swarthy yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to silver duckwing color description
 
SILVER DUCKWING PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
HEAD: White.
NECK: Hackle-silvery white free from black or dark striping, with some luster on lower portion. Front of Neck-black.
BACK & SADDLE: Lustrous silvery white, free from black or dark striping.
TAIL: Main Tail-black. Sickles, Lesser Sickles & Upper Coverts-lustrous blue black.  Lesser Coverts-white .
WINGS: Shoulders & Fronts-lustrous black. Bows-silvery white. Coverts-brilliant blue black, forming a distinct bar across wing. Primaries-dull black, lower edges of lower feathers, white. Secondaries-dull black, lower edges edged with white, exposed portion of outer web forming wing bay, white .
BREAST: Brilliant black.
BODY, STERN & LOWER THIGHS: Black.
UNDERCOLOR: Light slate in all sections.
 
Color of Female:
 
HEAD: Silvery gray.
NECK: Hackle-silvery gray, with narrow black stripe through middle of each feather, terminating in a point just short of lower extremity of feather. Front of Neck-dark salmon.
BACK & CUSHION: Surface of feather, silvery gray, formed of silver white, finely stippled with ashy gray; more importance is attached to fineness, evenness of color and freedom from shafting or regular penciling than to a particular shade or color, but it is important that the effect produced is that of a soft even shade of gray; unexposed portion of feathers to be slaty gray.
TAIL: Main Tail-black, except two top feathers, which should be stippled with light gray. Coverts-same as back.
WINGS: Shoulders, fronts, Bows and Coverts-same as back. Primaries-dull black, outer webs edged with slaty gray. Secondaries-dull black, outer webs finely stippled with ashy gray, forming wing bay to blend with body.
BREAST: Salmon, shading to gray under body, free from shafting.
BODY & STERN: Body-gray, formed at silvery white, finely stippled with ashy gray, free from shafting. Stern-fluff, light ashy gray.
LOWER THIGHS: Same as body.
UNDERCOLOR: Light slate in all sections.
DISQUALIFICATION: Positive white in main tail or sickle feathers.
DEFECTS: Reddish cast in female secondaries-lacing or frostiness in female breast feathers- Excess of white fluff at base of male tail-light lacing in breast of both sexes-Penciling and/ or vermiculation in female back, body, shoulders, fronts, bows and covert feathers. These feathers should be stippled over the entire surface right up to the very edge of the feather.
 
SILVER LACED JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red.
 
BEAK: Swarthy horn, shading to yellow at point. EYES: Reddish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Yellow .PLUMAGE: Refer to silver laced color description.
 
SILVER LACED PLUMAGE - A common fault in silver laced varieties is a type of feather that is so thin and transparent as to permit the underlying lacing to show through the surface color. The silver laced bantam is not truly "silver." It is, in the ultimate form, white and black, a brilliant expression of lacing and ground. An even shade of pure white throughout the entire surface is of great importance and it should be of sufficient density to conceal underlying lacing.
Where hereinafter called for in feather descriptions, the black appearing upon the surface, or exposed portion of the feather, is to have a rich sheen, keeping in mind that contrast is important.
 
Color of Male :
 
HEAD: Silvery white, each feather having a black stripe tapering to a point near its extremity.
NECK: Hackle-surface of feather, lustrous greenish black with a narrow lacing of silvery white, uniform in width, extending around point of feather; shaft, white. Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK: Lustrous silvery white on surface of feather.
SADDLE: Having appearance of silvery white, a black stripe through each feather, laced with white, conforming to shape of center, the black stripe having a long diamond- shaped center of white.
TAIL: Main Tail-black. Sickles, lesser Sickles & Coverts-lustrous greenish black. lesser Coverts-same as saddle.
WINGS: Fronts-black with white centers. Bows-silvery white, matching back. Coverts-exposed portion of surface of feather, white, forming a broad oval white center in each feather, with a narrow, sharply defined lacing of lustrous greenish black, the whole forming a double bar of laced feathers across wings. Primaries-black, lower edges white. Secondaries-black, lower half of lower webs, white with narrow black edgings wider at the tips; upper webs-edged with white.
BREAST: Exposed portion of surface of feather, white, forming a broad, oval white center in each feather, with a narrow, sharply defined lacing of lustrous greenish black.
BODY & STERN: Body-same as breast. Stern-fluff, slate.
LOWER THIGHS: Same as breast.
UNDERCOLOR: Slate, shading lighter at base.
 
Color of Female:
 
HEAD: Silvery gray.
NECK: Hackle-having appearance of silvery white, with a black center through each feather, laced with white; shaft, white. Front of Neck-same as breast.
BACK & CUSHION: Exposed portion of surface of feather white, forming a broad, oval white center in each feather, with a narrow, sharply defined lacing of lustrous greenish black.
TAIL: Main Tail-black. Coverts-same as back.
WINGS: Shoulders, fronts, Bows and Coverts-same as back. Primaries-black, lower edges white. Secondaries-black, lower half of outer webs, white with narrow black edging, wider at tips; upper webs, edged with white.
BREAST: Exposed portion of surface of feather white, forming a broad, oval white center in each feather, with a narrow, sharply defined lacing of lustrous greenish black.
BODY & STERN: Body-same as breast. Stern-fluff, slate.
LOWER THIGHS: Same as breast.
UNDERCOLOR: Slate, shading to lighter at base.
DEFECTS: Failure of lacing in plumage-Smut and ticking in plumage-Half moon or crescent lacing-Frosty or mooney breast lacings-Uneven or mealy appearance of lacing in any section-Unevenness of ground color in any section of the plumage.
 
WHEATEN JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright red. BEAK: Yellow .EYES: Red- dish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Dusky yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to wheaten color description.
 
WHEATEN PLUMAGE - Color of Male
 
HEAD: light orange red, free from dark striping.
NECK: Hackle-light orange red of blazing brilliance, toning off to flashing gold at extremities, free from dark striping. Front of Neck-throat, light orange; balance of neck black, with slight red lacing.
BACK: Brilliant bright red.
SADDLE: Same as hackle.
TAIL: Main Tail-black with slight luster. Sickles-lustrous greenish black. lesser Sickles-lustrous greenish black, with tendency toward red shafting and red lacing as tail coverts are neared. Coverts-lustrous greenish black, with tendency toward red shafting and red lacing.
WINGS: Shoulders & Fronts-black. Bows-brilliant bright red. Coverts-lustrous bluish black, forming distinct bar across wings. Primaries-black, lower edge of lower feathers edged with bay. Secondaries-dull black, exposed portion of outer webs forming wing bay, bay.
BREAST: Upper Breast-lustrous black, sparsely laced with red, pure black preferred. Lower Breast-lustrous black.
BODY & STERN: Body-black, sparsely laced with red at approach to stern, pure black preferred.
LOWER THIGHS: Black, slight red lacing at approach to hocks.
UNDERCOLOR: Very light slate in all sections.
 
Color of Female
 
HEAD: Golden wheaten.
NECK: Hackle- True wheaten with some brilliance. Front of Neck-creamy wheaten.
BACK & CUSHION: True wheaten, with some brilliance.
TAIL: Main Tail-dull black, outer web edged with wheaten, top two feathers stippled with wheaten. Coverts-true wheaten.
WINGS: Shoulders, fronts, Bows and Coverts-true wheaten. Primaries-brownish black, outer web medium wheaten. Secondaries-brownish black, stippled with wheaten, exposed portion of outer web forming wing bay, true wheaten.
BREAST, BODY, STERN & LOWER THIGHS: Creamy wheaten.
UNDERCOLOR: Very light slate in all sections.
MALE PLUMAGE - It has been a long established fact that the wheaten male is an overall lighter colored bird than the black breasted red. When the wheaten bred male is shown in a class of black breasted reds, he has a brighter, more flashy or showy appearance, and, everything else being even, he receives a higher placing by the average judge. The foregoing standard description describes several points which will assist the judge and breeder in distinguishing between these two color patterns.
Male specimens having the least amount of red shafting and/ or lacing are to be given preference in judging this color pattern.
 
FEMALE PLUMAGE
There is a tendency to place too much emphasis on light creamy wheaten females, which requires the rearing of a very large number of offspring to produce one bird of this shade. The word 'wheaten', as used in the foregoing descriptions is intended to mean the predominate color of ripened wheat. The female head, hackle, back, cushion, coverts and exposed portion of the wings should be an even shade of wheaten. Breast and underparts should be a somewhat lighter shade of wheaten. Strict definition of , 'creamy' , is reddish yellow in hue, which was the intent of the originators of this color pattern.
DISQUALIFICATIONS: Male with no semblance of red lacing in any section of the plumage-Female with red in any section of this plumage.
DEFECTS: Creamy or light creamy plumage in hackle, back, cushion and wings of female. There should be one uniform surface color in these sections-Mooney and/ or frosty black breast lacing of male- Frosty lacing in breast of female- Excessive red shafting and /or lacing in male-Mealiness, smut and ticking in female-White in male flight and tail feathers-Excessive white fluff at base of male tail.
 
WHITE JAPANESE BANTAM
 
COMB, FACE, WATTLES AND EAR LOBES: Bright Red. BEAK: Yellow. EYES: Red- dish bay. SHANKS & TOES: Yellow. PLUMAGE: Refer to white color description.
 
WHITE PLUMAGE - Color of Male and Female
 
The quill, undercolor and surface of each feather in all sections of the plumage over en- tire body, pure white.
The head, hackle, back, saddle, sickles and wing bows of the male should have a lustrous sheen.
The female should show brilliance of feather in the head, hackle, back, cushion and wing bows.
DISQUALIFICATIONS: Feathers other than white in any section of the plumage.
DEFECTS: Creaminess on surface or in undercolor-Brassiness, mealiness, sootiness or flecking in any section of the plumage.
 
There are several different ways to set up a breeding program. We are taking for granted that you are working on a certain breed and a certain variety, and you have gotten the birds you want to work with. There are several different ways to set up a breeding program. First you can stud mate. In this plan you are mating one male to one female.
 
You can use the same male on different females, but you have the females caged separately and move the male from female to female. Taking for granted that you will somehow mark and track the offspring from each stud mating, you will be able to see what each female mated with this one male, will produce. The second type of program is a trio mating. In this scheme you are mating one male to two females.
 
The disadvantage to this kind of mating is you will not be sure which female is the mother of which offspring. The advantage is space saving.
conservation, but you will not be able to trace your parentage. The last type of breeding plan is flock mating. In this program you have a large pen with a group of females and several males. The males can mate with any of the females. This is how it is done in many of the commercial flocks that are breeding for production.
 
Keep in mind that you should have been preparing all of your breeders several months in advance for the breeding pens. You would do this much like you would condition your birds for a show, only here we would be focusing on feed and supplements. At least a month before you plan to start breeding (this should really be a year round feeding plan) put your males and females on a breeder or at least laying ration. Give them supplements like lettuce and shredded carrots.
 
At least twice a week sprinkle some Red Cell or wheat germ oil over their feed. I mix Red Cell with scratch and feed it in the evening before the birds go to roost. You can also get supplements for the water that contains vitamins and electrolytes. Another trick is weekly empty out all of your feeders into a pail.
 
What you will have is what you would think is dust, but it is really healthy feed. Mix it with warm water and feed in over fresh feed. The birds will love it, and you are conserving feed. With this kind of preparation made you have a lot better chance of fertility when you actually put the birds together.